Category Standard Model

An experiment to determine whether the universe is expanding

In the 19th century the German physicist Joseph von Fraunhofer (1787-1826) discovered that the solar spectrum contains a number of dark bands.  Fraunhofer made a detailed study of the wavelengths of these lines and later it was discovered independently by Bunsen and Kirchhoff that each chemical element has a characteristic set of these so called […]

Retrospective Predictions!

Modern scientific enquiry aims to be as objective as possible.  The mechanism that has evolved to meet this requirement is called the Scientific Method.  The Scientific Method is predicated on the idea that new theories are developed based on a set of assumptions or postulates. To be useful the theory must be capable of making […]

How is it possible to make nothing out of something?

There is a fundamental conflict between the currently accepted interpretation of Maxwell’s equations and the absence of an ether like medium. Maxwell’s equations purport to show that a changing magnetic field induces an electric field and a changing electric field induces a magnetic field.  Taken together these two coupled fields oscillate and the whole propagates […]

Hydrogenic Atoms and the Bohr Model

As we move up the periodic table atoms get heavier. They do so because the nuclei of heavier atoms contain more protons.  In addition to the protons these heavier nuclei also contain another type of particle; the neutron, roughly equal in mass to the proton, but itself electrically neutral. So while the hydrogen atom comprises […]

Einstein and Bohr and the nature of reality

Perhaps the most important scientific debate of the 20th Century was that which took place between Niels Bohr and Albert Einstein during the 1930’s and 40’s. At issue was the very nature of reality. By that time Bohr had become convinced that the laws of physics had to be different on the scale of the […]

Michelson Morley – the most successful failed experiment

Maxwell’s equations showed the link between electricity and magnetism in space.  A changing electric current produced a magnetic field and a changing magnetic field produced an electric current.  These appear to be related through a pair of constants, permeability and permittivity. Permeability and permittivity appeared to be properties of space itself, but as such they […]

James Clerk Maxwell

Can electric charge exist in the absence of a charged particle?

Up until the 1820’s the only magnets that were known were lodestones and magnets made of iron such as compass needles.  Then in 1820 Hans Christian Oersted was conducting a demonstration of the heating of a wire by means of an electric current.  Coincidentally he also planned a demonstration of the effects of magnetism for […]