Scientists have long sought to show that various different forces of nature are in fact just different manifestations of a single common force.  It is felt that by doing so it will offer insights into the way the universe works and produce a much simpler model. The pressure to simplify our understanding of the universe […]

The Muon is a small electrically charged particle, much like an electron only more massive.  Muons are especially useful when it comes to testing and measuring the effects of special relativity. This comes about for a number of reasons.  Firstly the muon carries an electric charge, which means that it can be manipulated by means […]

Werner Heisenberg (1901 – 1976) was a German physicist who studied physics and mathematics in Munich.  He studied under Arnold Sommerfeld alongside Wolfgang Pauli, but it was when he first met Niels Bohr that his interest in quantum physics and his career took off. In 1926 he was working on a way to explain the […]

What the Michelson Morley experiment really shows, and what most modern theories fail to recognise, is that empty space is incapable of supporting a wave.  The fact that there is no ether means that all that is left which can support a wave is material and material, be it matter or antimatter is made of […]

In the 19th century the German physicist Joseph von Fraunhofer (1787-1826) discovered that the solar spectrum contains a number of dark bands.  Fraunhofer made a detailed study of the wavelengths of these lines and later it was discovered independently by Bunsen and Kirchhoff that each chemical element has a characteristic set of these so called […]

Modern scientific enquiry aims to be as objective as possible.  The mechanism that has evolved to meet this requirement is called the Scientific Method.  The Scientific Method is predicated on the idea that new theories are developed based on a set of assumptions or postulates. To be useful the theory must be capable of making […]

There is a fundamental conflict between the currently accepted interpretation of Maxwell’s equations and the absence of an ether like medium. Maxwell’s equations purport to show that a changing magnetic field induces an electric field and a changing electric field induces a magnetic field.  Taken together these two coupled fields oscillate and the whole propagates […]

As we move up the periodic table atoms get heavier. They do so because the nuclei of heavier atoms contain more protons.  In addition to the protons these heavier nuclei also contain another type of particle; the neutron, roughly equal in mass to the proton, but itself electrically neutral. So while the hydrogen atom comprises […]

The kinetic theory of heat was first proposed by the Swiss scientist Daniel Bernoulli in 1738 in a publication entitled Hydrodynamica. In it he proposed that gasses were composed of molecules all moving in different directions and that pressure is felt as a result of collisions between these molecules and the container walls.  Phenomena associated […]

Perhaps the most important scientific debate of the 20th Century was that which took place between Niels Bohr and Albert Einstein during the 1930’s and 40’s. At issue was the very nature of reality. By that time Bohr had become convinced that the laws of physics had to be different on the scale of the […]